AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLINGUISTICS:
WHAT DO LANGUAGE USERS NOW?
- A. The domain of Psycholinguistics Inquiry
Linguistics is the discipline that describes the structure of language, including its grammar, sound system and vocabulary. Psycholinguistics is concerned with discovering the psychological process by which human acquire and use language. Psycholinguistics is concerned with the acquisition, perception, and production of language. Psycholinguistics addressed three major concerns:
- Comprehension : how people understand spoken and written language.
- Speech production : how people product language.
- Acquisition : how people learning language. Focus on how children acquire a first language ( developed psycholinguistics)
- B. Language
Language is the form of communication used by human, according to Ronald Wardhaugh state that language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. Human language is characterized by its hierarchical structure. This means that message is divisible into smaller units of analysis.
- C. What Speakers And Listeners Know: A Brief Survey of Linguistics.
Level of linguistics Analysis:
- The sounds of the message must be isolated and recognized.
- The world must be identified and associated with their meaning.
- The grammatical structure of the message must be analyzed sufficiently to determine the roles played by each word.
- The result interpretation on the message must be evaluated in light of past experience and the current of context.
Linguistics related areas :
- Phonetics and phonology are concerned with the study of speech sound.
- Morphology is the study of word structures, especially the relationship between related word ( such as dog and dogs) and the information of word based on rules ( such as plural information )
- Semantic deals with the meaning of words and sentences. Where syntax is concerned with the formal structure of sentence, semantics deals with the actual meaning of sentences.
- Pragmatics is concerned with the role of context in the interpretations of meaning.
- D. Language Diversity And language Universal.
Universal grammar is a system of principles, condition and rules that are elements or properties of all human language.
A psycholinguistics may be based on cognitive and perceptual factors, as well as linguistic:
- Oral and signed language. Language is signed or spoken. Oral language are numerous, but the manage signed languages in the world all divers crucially in their phonology.
- Written language. Very widely in their characteristics, but some broad categories of writing system can be described. The minimal unit or building block of any written system is the grapheme.
- E. The Evolution Of Psycholinguistics Inquiry
The field of psycholinguistic is relatively young. Some researches that its birth to the early 1950s when psycholinguistics and linguist met to discuss whether advance in experimental psychology cloud be applied to the study of language performance and comprehension. psychology during the 1950s was strongly governed by behaviorist, or learning theory, principle that emphasized serial pattering in behavior.
- F. The Acquisitions Of Language By Children
An important of Chomsky’s early writing (1957, 1965) was its emphasis on the rule of linguistics theory and the limit of behaviorist psychology in explaining the acquisition of language by children :
- The first stage or phonological acquisitions
Example: a word like “mama” can use to means anything from “there’s mama “ to mama, I’ m hungry”
- The two word stage
Example: dog may first be use to refers to all animal
- The third state or syntactic
Example: the child my hypothesize that the past tense ending for all English verb is-ed, that production such form as go “goed”, sing “ singed”.
THE BIOLOGICAL BASES OF HUMAN
- A. Language And The Brain : A historical Perspective
The Biological Basis of Human Behavior accomplishes what numerous introductory books have failed to do: present an evolutionary explanation of why it is we do what we do. This comprehensive book brings together a diverse number of traditionally separate disciplines including pale anthropology, psychology, and sociology in its attempt to understand human traits.
Rich in controversial topics, this text integrates subjects such as paleontology, speech, the structure of the brain, Eve, and the rather odd way in which humans reproduce. Written as a narrative, this excellent learning tool relates modern behavior to the past environments, stresses, and challenges still evident in the modern human world.
For anyone interested in the biological bases of human behavior; psychology; or anthropology.
- B. Early Neurolinguistic Observations
Many have regarded it as the first mention of aphasia (loss abilities due to brain damage). To this day, trauma (injurity to the brain produced by external force) continues to provide us with insights into brain function.
- The ancient Greeks offered little insight in their speculation, despite their contribution in many other areas of inguiry. For example Aris Totle (384-322)
- Hippocratic scholars (467-370) correctly observed that brain injury often produced contra lateral (opposite-sided) paresis (semi paralysis) .
- Herophilus and Galen, in the second century , developed the Ventricle or Cell Theory of brain function, which localized brain activity to its cavities, the ventricles, where cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) production takes places.
- G. Mercuriale (1588) first described what is know as pure alexia or alexia without agraphia. In age when scholars spoke Latin as well as their local language , the first cases of bilingual aphasia (aphasia affecting the use of two languages) were documented (Gesner,1770:see Benton,1981)
The retained ability to recite over learned materials such us prayers in the presence of severe aphasia was also noted by Peter Rommel in 1683.
- C. Localization Of Function (Neurology In The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries)
Note that the patient in sample A appears halting, sparse, and devoid of recognizable sentence structure. This no fluent, agrammatic type of output is characteristic of Broca’s aphasia. By 1885, Broca believe that he had amassed enough evidence to proclaim that for the vast majority of people “noun parlons avec I’ hemi sphere gauche,” ( we speak with the left hemisphere.)”
- D. Functional Neuroanatomy and Neuropathology
- Neuroanatomical Structure Involved in Speech and Language
The most rostal (from the Latin” toward the break”) structure, the cerebral cortex. The cortex, like almost every structure in the Brain (and the body), is paired it has a left and right park. Language behavior is survived by different cortical areas or loci located within different lobes of the cortex.
- How Speech Is Control by The Brain
Language is not the only species-specific aspect of human communication behavior; speech is also specific to human behavior (Dingwall,1975)
- Neural Cells and Their Connections: The ultimate Basis of All Behavior
The Brain is composed of but two types of cells: nerve cells (neurons) and glia (glue cells). Humans do not win a prize for the largest number of these cells-other animals are larges than us in body size and brain weight.
- What Can Go wrong With the Brain: Neuropathology
Cerebrovascular diseases kill neurons by cutting off their blood supply, thus depriving them of glucose and oxygen. Other pathologies such as trauma, tumors, and hydrocephalus destroy neuronal tissue by producing within the cranium space occupying masses that consist of blood, glial cells, or cerebrosfinal fluid.
- E. Lateralization Of Function
- Putting one of half of the brain to sleep: the wada test
- Splitting apart the hemispheres: commissurotomy
- Taking out half the brain : hemispherectomy
- Listening with both ears: the dichotic listening technique
- What function reside in the nondominant hemisphere?
- When sign language users become aphasic?
- F. Intrahemispheric Localization of Function
- Measuring electrical activity in the brain.
- Measuring blood flow in the brain.
- The role of sub cortical structures in speech and language
- A. The Historical Roots of Speech Perception
Compared to many other areas of inquiry in psycholinguistics, speech perception research is excrementally recent in origin. Willis (1829) and Helmholtz (1859) studied physical properties of sound in the nineteen century, but specific research into the way perceive speech emerged just prior to and durng the Second World War.
- B. Major Questions In Speech Perception
- How do we identify and label phonetic segment.
In terms of its acoustical (sound) properties, human speech is a complex signal the contains many kind information at any single moment and varies continuous over time. Conversational speech in any language to be paced at 125-180 word per minute. One of the greatest challenges for speech perception researchers is to determine how individual sounds are isolated (segmented) from the complex speech signal and how they are identified appropriately.
The “Lack of Invariance” problem. It would be relatively easy to developed models of the speech perception process if each distinctive sound in a language was associated with a standard acoustic pattern.
- How is speech perceived under less than ideal conditions?
Conversational speech is quite variable in its acoustic characteristics. Sometimes speakers underarticulate (miss articulatory targets), so much so that the words lose much of their identifying information. Yet, listener usually have little trouble understanding such speech sample.
- The Speech Signal
How speech is produce. In this section, we briefly survey the process by which speech sounds are produced. How and where sounds are produced within our vocal tracts determines the acoustic properties of those sound. Because of this, sometimes we can also work backwards and identify from its acoustics image on a spectrogram where and how a particular sound was articulated.
- Place of articulation
We call each of these location place of articulation. Common places for English consonant are bilabial, labiodental, interdental, alveolar, palatal, and velar.
- Manner of production
The source of acoustic energy for speech sound production comes from modulations in the air following from the lungs to the lips. The production of any sound involved the movement of air molecules. We breathe air into our lungs to serve as the power supply for the production of speech.
- Distinctive feature
Linguistic have used concept such as voicing or place of articulation to develop a system of distinctive features describing speech sound. For example, all sound are characterized either by the feature+voice (voiced) or –voice (voiceless).
- Acoustic properties of speech sounds
Vowels: the simplest case. The easies way to demonstrate the acoustical properties of speech sounds is by describing single vowels. All speech sounds are composed of complex sound waves; that is, they contains many different frequencies simultaneously, like a musical chord that contains many notes.
- Acoustics characteristic of consonant
Consonant are characterized by an array of different patterns on a sound spectrogram. One more, we will starts with more easily identifiable patterns, those associated with the fricatives (s).
- C. Perception of Phonetic Segment.
In this section we address the perception of phonetic segment. As we have seen, the speech signal is complex and contains much information in the time, frequency, and amplitude domains.
- The rule of speech synthesis in perceptual research.
The collaboration of three pioneers in speech perception research at Haskins Laboratories signaled the stars of research on the perceptual evaluation of acoustic cues.
- Ways in which speech perception is tested
Many experiments speech perception, including those that we will discuss in the following section, have made use of two tasks : discrimination and identification.
- Perception of vowels
The early studies made use of extended steady-state vowels as stimuli. One experiment made use of the patterns playback to synthesize the stimuli.
- Steady states versus formant transition in vowel identification: an illustrative study
Listeners evaluated the following types stimuli:
– The unmodified original syllables, called control syllable.
– Silent-centre syllables
– Variable-centre syllables
– Fixed-centre stimuli were constructed by the trimming segment (b) in each syllable to match the duration of the shortest target vowel.
– Finally, listeners evaluated abutted syllables.
- Perception of consonant
In both conventional speech and laboratory studies, vowels are perceived more accurately than consonants.
- Phoneme identify is context dependent
Since the late 1950s, a great deal of research has been devoted to other types of perceptual studies primarily concerned with the determining the acoustics cues for all the phonetic contras in English and other languages.
- Voice-onset-time : an important acoustics cue.
- Categorical perception of voicing contras.
- Other categorical perception studies
- Categorical perception: specific to speech sound perception?
- Other applications of test paradigms used in categorical perception studies.
- D. Speech Perception Beyond A Single Segment
This section reviews the perception of speech signals longer than a single phoneme.
- The perceptual outcome of co articulation
- Perceptual effect of speaking rate
- Lexical and syntactic factors in word perception
- E. Models of speech perception
In this section we describe several models that have been advanced to explain some of the mechanism involved in speech perception.
- Motor theory of speech perception
- Fuzzy logical model
- Cohort model
- Trace model
- Fuzzy logical model
WORD AND MEANING:
FROM PRIMITIVES TO COMPLEX ORGANIZATION
- A. Word And Meaning : Separate But Linked Domain
Numerous findings, some anecdotal and some empirical, conclude that words and meanings are related but separate entities. Three line of argument make the point :
- The translation argument, suggest that any given language includes some words that not depend meaning for their existence and some meanings for which there are not single word.
- Argument for a separation of words and meaning comes from the imperfect mapping illustration.
- Argument for treating word and meanings as separate comes from the elasticity demonstration, which illustrates that a word meaning can change in different contexts.
- B. The Study Of Word
In this section on words. Psychologist have used a variety of experimental techniques to the study these issues. Let us first turn to a discussion of the theoretical issues that underlie this research.
- Word primitives
Let us begin dissecting the sentence, the impartial judge ruled the defendants guilty. Although the sentence is composed of only seven words, many of these words are complex and contain affixes that convey important information.
Evidence about word primitives:
- Each word (even multimorphemic) has its own lexical entry, know as a lexeme.
- Constituents morphemes are individually stored in the lexicon so that words are decomposed or composed.
- Factors influencing word access and organization
Some of these factors many influence lexical access directly :
- Image ability and concreteness and abstractness
- Grammatical class
- Models of lexical access
- Serial search models
- Parallel access models, which are: Logogen model, Morton (1969,1979), Connectionist models, Cohort models.
- Separating words and meaning.
- C. Meaning.
We will begin our discussion with a presentation of the major philosophical accounts of meaning.
- Philosophical theories of meaning
- Alternative theories : meaning is in the public domain
- Conceptual primitives
- Feature theories
- Variations of feature theories, as we shall is the classical view and the family resemble view.
- Knowledge-based approaches, let us briefly review each now: psychological essentialism is the position advocated by Medin (Medin & ortony, 1989; Murphy & Medin, 1985) and Psychological conceptualism refers to the idea that the certain contexts.
- Conceptual organization
- Models of semantic representation
- A special problem for the mental lexicon: lexical ambiguity. Although all meanings are activated in parallel: contexts, other factors, time course of activation, the time course of sentence contexts versus word pairs.
- The reciprocal and influential relationships of words and meaning
- A. Structural Properties Of Sentences
One reason why can process speech so rapidly is our ability to systematically make use of structure in natural language. Think for a moment of a system “ sentence” in the abstract, a sentence following the noun-verb-noun form. Think now of the “sentence” but in form of an action, the first noun verbed the second noun.
- Statistical approximation to English . you might as known that increasing the likelihood of words by increasing contextual constraints, either with the sentences or with sentences or with statistics approximation to English.
- Where do people pause when the speak?. Clearly, listener know a great deal about the structure of their narrative language.
- B. Syntactic Process
- Syntactic resolution is necessary for comprehension
- Surface structure versus deep structure
- Competence versus performance
- Syntactic structure of sentences
- C. Sentence Parsing And Syntactic Ambiguity.
Researches have found that the way listeners and readers handle ambiguities can offer valuable insights general processing principles in language comprehension.
Local ambiguity versus standing ambiguity. Syntactic ambiguity refers to cases where a clause or sentence may have more than one interpretation given than potential grammatical functions of the individual words.
- D. Models Of Sentence Parsing.
A theory similar to the first possibility is sometime referred to as the garden part model of sentence processing. A theory of similar to the second possibility is sometimes referred to as the constrains satisfaction models.
- Garden part models of sentence processing, the parser makes only one initial syntactic analysis of a word sequence.
- Constrain satisfaction model of sentence processing, models say that more than one syntactic analysis of a word sequence may be generated during comprehension.
- E. Meaning : The Goal Of Sentence Processing.
The goal of sentence processing is to arrive at the meaning of the sentence. In formal terms, this means determining the semantic relationship between the rapidly arriving words.
- F. Is Syntax Processed Separately From Meaning.
At the time when modern psycholinguistic was first developing, psychology as a whole was largely dominated by “serial” models of mental operations. The possibility of massively parallel computers and neural network modeling was still beyond the horizontal.
- G. The Role Of Prosody In Sentence Processing.
Prosody is a general term form the variety of acoustic features-what we hear-that ordinarily accompany a spoken sentence. One prosodic feature is the intonation pattern of a sentence.
- H. On-Line Interactive Models of Sentence Processing.
Support from prior context that spoken sentences can be processed so rapidli.
- Shadowing and gating student.
- How on-line is gating?. The process we wish to understand, of course, is the real-time analysis of the speech input and the automated “core process” involved in language understanding.
- I. Where Does context Operate?
Modularity are those who believe that input processes such as lexical activation are cognitively impenetrable. That is, these operations are performed rapidly, automatically, and uninfluenced by prior or collateral information.
- J. Comprehension Of No literal Meaning.
A distinction important to a discussion of sentence processing is the distinction between the literal meaning of an utterance and cases where sentence also have non literal meaning. One example of non literal meaning is sarcsam.
- K. The Role Of Memory In Language Processing
Martin (1990) has divided these needs into three categories:
- Speech perception and lexical identifications
- Syntactic parsing and retention of phrases
- Retention of semantic propositions
- L. A Processing model Of Sentence Comprehension
This models proposes that in active speech perception (or in reading), linguistic input in processed in cycles on a segment-by-segment basis.
SENTENCE COMBINED: TEXT AND DISCOURSE
- A. Discourse And Text
Discourse refers to a ‘lengthy discussion of a subject, either written or spoken’. And text is defined as ‘any passage, spoken or written, of whatever length, that does form a unified whole.’ (Hlliday & Hasan, 1976, p. 1)
- Cohesion, Is defined as semantic concept that ”refers to relations of meaning that exist within the text and that define it as a text.
- Propositional Models of the text processing. When people listen to or read a sentence, they remember its meaning, but typically they retain information about its grammatical form for only brief time unless the syntactic form its self meaningful.
- Inferences, are deductions or guesses based on evidence in the text or derived from a person’s preexisting knowladge.
- Remembering. Schemata in 1932, Bartlett published a book that eventually revolutionized the was psychologist thought about memory. such expectation are called schemata.
- B. Context
- Discourse as a context.
- Context and comprehension, remembering depends on understanding.
- Unwritten rules of discourse. Paul Grice (1075) articulated for unwritten rules for efficient speech, otherwise known as conversational maxims.
- Ambiguity. Discourse serves as a context, affecting sentence and word-level interpretation of what would on otherwise be ambiguous words phrases in certain direction.
- Metaphors, are in interesting form of discourse that has received attention in psychology for about 20 years, though most readers will have encountered discussion of them only in English classes.
- Irony, is another form of figurative language that illuminates the importance of context to meaning.
- Speech act, speakers use language for many purpose to inform, question, command, thank, apologize, congratulate, promise, offer, and marry people.
- Politeness. Means acting so as to take account of the feelings of others and includes both those actions concerned positive face and negative face.
- Individual factors affecting discourse
- Conversational style
- Bilingual issues of discourse
- Bilingual issues of discourse. Dialect, Social class differences and Role
- Genres ( a literary form).
- Narrative . has received considerable attention.
- Expository/explanatory. The discourse that transmits such thinking.
- Humor. As with explanation and narrative, humor is conceptually distinct but in reality often overlaps with explanation and narrative.
- A. Introduction.
In this chapter, we discuss the by which a speaker turns a mental concept into a spoken utterances. It is more difficult to study speech production than to investigate speech perception or comprehension because of the difficulty in constructing experimental tasks that can reveal the complex steps in the process. From concept to expression. Speech communication may be viewed as a “ chain of events linking the speakers brain with the listeners brain.
- B. Sources Of Data For Models Of Speech Production
- Speech Errors. It is of course no simple matter to try to understand any aspect of the mental processes involved in speaking.
- Disfluencies. In addition to speech errors, many utterances are characterized by hesitations, repetition, false stars, and filler.
- C. Issues in speech production
- The units of speech production. When the produce an utterance corresponding to some though we wish to convey, we cannot go to a mental storage unit and pull out the appropriate stored message.
v Phonemic segments
v Phonetic features
v The syllable
- Word, morpheme, and phrase units in speech production
v Word selection and placement errors
v Lexical search and Pausal phenomena.
v Morphemes and speech errors
v Grammatical rules
- The phrase as a planning unit
v The phrase as a unit in slips of the tongue
v Self-corrections and retracing
v Pausal phenomena
- How far ahead do we plan?. Syntactic phrase have hierarchical structure large phrase include smaller phrase. A sentence or clause may be composed of constituent clauses, which in turn are composed of various syntactic phrase.
- D. What Speech Errors Data Suggest About The Process Of Speech Production.
- Speech is planned in advance
- The lexicon is organized both semantically and phonologically.
- Morphologically complex words are assembled
- Affixes and functors behave differently from content words in slips of tongue
- Speech errors reflect rule knoeladge.
- E. Speech Production Processing Models
- The utterance generator model of speech production
v A meaning to be conveyed is generated
v The message is mapped onto a syntactic structure
v Intonation contours (sentence and phrasal stress) are generated on the basis of the syntactic representations.
v Word are selected from the lexicon
v Phonological specification
v Generation of the motor commands for speech
- The garret model
- Level’s model
v The image
v The lexical level, or concept
v The lemma level
v The lexeme level
- Dell’s model. The concept of spreading activation was discussed. Dell’s spreading activation models of speech production.
- A. Research Methods In The Study Of Language Development
- Diaries and parental reports
The first studies some as early as the 18th century were almost invariably based on observations of the author’s own children and were kept in the form of diaries.
Spurred by the dramatic changes in linguistic theory during the early 1960s discussed in chapter 1, developmental psycholinguistics began to collect tape-recorded observational data on children’s language and conduct experimental research based on children’s abilities to produce and comprehend specific structure of English.
In general, we explore children’s language systems indirectly, at least in part because their met linguistic capacities are limited; it would be difficult to ask them what their rules are or what they find acceptable.
- Experimental Techniques. Various experimental techniques assess infant and child language knowledge.
- Child language data exchange system (CHILDES)
- Research design . The design of studies can be either cross-sectional or longitudinal.
- B. The Development Of Speech Perception
- Methods for studying speech perception in infants
- How speech perception developed
- Prenatal auditory exposer and learning
- Early speech perception
- Linguistic specialization.
- C. The Child’s Lexicon
- Before first words
- First words
- Comprehension lead production
- Characteristic of early vocabulary and their determinants
- .How do children determine what words means? Its doesn’t take long for a child to assign some form meaning to a new word.
- How to learn what words means: some possible strategies.
- How do children determine the part of speech of a novel word? The context in which children encounter new nouns are relatively favorable for making linkages between object and names.
- Some words are more difficult to learn than others. Not all words are equally easy for children to learn.
- Lexical organization and word association.
- D. Learning To Make And Understand Sentences.
- Assessing syntactic knowledge. We have already discussed methods that researches use to analyze children’s say in naturalistic setting.
- Methods for assessing syntactic understanding. Historical, researches have tasted children’s understanding of sentences by asking them to act sentence out using object.
- Moving from words to sentences. Which Early sentences and Early grammar.
- Learning to make sentences in English. Certainly, acquisition of morphological markers such as verbal inflection, articles, plurals, and so fort is necessary for the creation of well-formed sentences in English. Learning to say no, learning to ask questions.
- E. Learning To Communicate : Early Social Uses Of Language.
When children have acquired linguistic principle such as conversational turn-taking and many semantic relations, much of their early speech is directed toward maintaining contact with caregivers and getting others to do things for them.
Learning to take perceptive: the demise of egocentrism. Is Young children sometimes show evidence of an ability to take perspective of their listener.
- F. Theories Of Child Language Acquisition.
- What must theories of language development account for? In reviewing the theories of language acquisition we present below, remember that each must account for some facts about child language development.
- General features of theories. Developmental psycholinguistics is filled with lively theoretical controversy about how best to account for language development.
- Major dimension of language development theories.
- Linguistics/innatist theory.
- G. Perspectives: What Do The Data Tells Us About The Theories?
- Nature or nature? Clearly, the answer to this question is a resounding “both”
- Biological bases.
- Biological, cognitive, and social interaction.
- Continuity or discontinuity
- Universal competence or individual variation
- Structure or functions
A PSYOCHOLINGUSTIC ACCOUNT OF RAEDING
- A. A History Of Writing Systems.
The history of written language is relatively recent and varies somewhat in chronology: early writing appears to have evolved independently in different parts of the word.
- B. The Alphabet
Nowhere is this transformation more obvious than in the introduction of the Greek alphabet, upon which all modern alphabets are based.
- C. The Underlying Elements Of Reading
The number of processed involved in reading, the complex nature of each, and the daunting demand posed by their rapid interaction help us understand the difficulty of acquiring the alphabetic principle.
- Representational system in word identification, which are: phonological coding, semantic coding, syntactic/grammar coding, the visual system, and motor system.
- Cognitive processes involved in reading and all learning. Which are: attention, associative learning, cross-modal transfer, patterns analysis and rule learning, and serial memory.
- D. The Development Of Reading
- The protoliteracy period. A child’s attainment of reading ability is rooted in spoken language skill. which are: phonological skills, vocabulary knowledge, letter recognition and naming speed abilities.
- Stage of literacy. The actual stages of literacy acquisition are a matter of continuing discussion.
- E. Models Of Skilled Reading.
- Context-driven, “top-down” models
- Stimulus-driven ,”bottom-up” models
- Whole-word models
- Component-letter models
- Multilevel and parallel coding-system models, which are: Laberge and Samuel’s multilevel coding model, parallel coding-system models.
- Lexical-search models. Whereas- search models postulate the period words identified by passive and automatic activation of letter and word detector.